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A history of banking – Slavery by debt, laws and treaties
G. Edward Griffin – The creature from Jekyll Island

In this post my summary of a good book on the creation of the Federal Reserve (on Jekyll Island) and how the international money system works (including the World Bank and IMF).

Paper (fiat) money from England – inflation tax
Fiat money is paper money without precious-metal backing. The first recorded appearance of fiat money was in thirteenth century China, but its use on a major scale only first occurred in colonial America.
The Bank of England was formed in 1694 to institutionalise fractional-reserve banking. This was used to bribe politicians with spendable money (created out of nothing by the banksters) without having to raise taxes. In return, the bankers would receive a commission — called interest.
In England, the first paper money was the exchequer order of Charles II. It was replaced in 1696 by the exchequer bill that was redeemable in gold.

Expanding the money supply causes inflation, and the amount lost in purchasing power could be seen as money stolen from us by our government or a hidden tax.
Since the establishment of the Bank of England in 1694, most wars couldn’t have been financed without fiat money. Or in other words: wars cause inflation…

US Central banks until the Fed and rising US debts
The formation of the first US central bank, the Bank of the United States, was primarily to create money for the federal government. The creation of millions of new fractional-reserve dollars made prices inflate. In a five-year period, prices rose by 72%, or in other words 42% of people’s savings in the form of money was confiscated by the government through inflation.
The Bank of the United States also came to the assistance of “good” state banks, which allowed them to act recklessly.
In 1791, the First Bank of the United States (America's second central bank) was created by Congress, as almost a replica of the first, including fraud.
The story of the Second Bank of the United States, the third central bank of the USA, ended after President Andrew Jackson won the battle with the head of that bank, Nicholas Biddle.

According to the National Banking Act of 1863, banks only had to keep a percentage of their notes and deposits in the form of lawful money (gold coins). That percentage averaged about 12%.
This means that a bank with $1 million in coin deposits could use approximately $880,000 of that ($1 million minus 12%) to purchase government bonds, exchange the bonds for bank notes, lend out the bank notes, and collect interest on both the bonds and the loans. So the bank could earn interest on $880,000 loaned to the government in the form of coins plus interest on $880,000 loaned to its customers in the form of bank notes. That doubled the bank's income without needing more capital; and basically means that the effective reserve fraction of 12% is really only 6%...
By failing to veto the National Bank Act, President Lincoln delivered the American people into the claws of the international Cabal, an act which was similar to the forcible return of captured runaway slaves.
By participating in the greenbacks, President Lincoln violated one of the most important sections of the Constitution. During the war, the money supply increased by 138% and the purchasing power of the greenbacks fell by 65%. Prices more than doubled while wages rose by less than half. In this way, Americans surrendered more than half of all the money they earned or held during that period to the government and to the banks — in addition to their “normal” taxes.

Griffin blames most of what’s wrong with our Brave New World on the Fabian Society and its bastard offspring that includes the Round Table, RIIA and Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).
See the stained-glass window that was once in the Beatrice Webb House in Surrey, England, former headquarters of the Fabian Society. It is now on display at the London School of Economics. It shows Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw striking the earth with hammers to "REMOULD IT NEARER TO THE HEART'S DESIRE". Note the wolf in sheep's clothing in the Fabian crest above the globe.
[Image: FabianWindow_Large.jpg]

The first draft of the Jekyll Island plan (for the Federal Reserve) was submitted to the Senate by Nelson Aldrich but had actually been written by Frank Vanderlip and Benjamin Strong (the buddy of the Governor of the Bank of England, Montagu Norman).
The presidential campaigns of Woodrow Wilson and Teddy Roosevelt included propaganda against the evils of the Money Trust while both of their campaigns were financed by that same Trust.

It’s obvious that Americans and their government have become mired in debt.
Annual federal deficits have grown steadily since 1950. It had taken 198 years for the federal government to borrow the first trillion dollars. Then, in only twelve years — mostly when B-actor Reagan played president — it borrowed another $3 trillion. By the end of 1995, the debt had grown to about $5 trillion. It has continued to rise almost vertically.
By 1993, net interest payments on that debt were $214 billion per year; about 14% of all federal revenue. It now represents the government's largest single expense. These charges are paid by the American tax payer. On average, over $5,000 is extracted per American family annually, only to pay the interest.
Private investors in the US hold about 37% of this debt; foreign investors own approximately 27%; agencies of the federal government have 28%; and the Federal Reserve owns only about 8% of the US national debt.

Today’s $22.5 trillion, rising to $34 trillion, is just the US national government debt. Total US debt includes state and local government debt, household debt, corporate bond and business commercial & industrial loan debt, central bank balance sheet debt, and government agencies (GSEs) debt. Add these other forms of debt to the national debt makes the total debt in the US rises some $53 trillion. This lead to an estimated grand total US debt of more than $70 trillion by 2028 (the $900 billion a year in interest charges for the banksters is probably too low an estimate):

Karl Marx, Trotsky, Bolsheviks
In 1904, Jacob Schiff (head of the New York investment firm of Kuhn, Loeb, and Company) had raised capital for large war loans to Japan so they could fight against Russia.

This 1911 cartoon by Robert Minor shows Karl Marx surrounded by delighted Wall Street financiers: Morgan partner George Perkins; J.P. Morgan; John Ryan of National City Bank; John D. Rockefeller; and Andrew Carnegie. Behind Marx stand Teddy Roosevelt…
[Image: Robert-Minor-Dee-Lighted-1911.png]

In January of 1916, Leon Trotsky was expelled from France and came to the US at the invitation of Schiff. His travel expenses were paid by Schiff.
On 23 March 1917, the abdication of Tsar Nicholas was celebrated at Carnegie Hall. When Trotsky returned to Petrograd in May 1917, he carried $10,000 for travel expenses, again from Kuhn, Loeb.

Contrary to believe, Lenin, Trotsky, and their Bolsheviks did not overthrow the monarchy but overthrew the first democratic society in Russian history, set up through the March 1917 revolution. Lenin and Trotsky weren’t sent to Russia to overthrow the Tsar but to make an end to the (real?) revolution.
After the October 1917 Revolution, all the banks in Russia were "nationalised" by the Bolsheviks except for the Petrograd branch of Rockefeller's National City Bank.

Arsene de Goulevitch mentioned that Knight of the Garter Alfred Milner (head of the Round Table) financed the Bolshevik Revolution with over 21 million roubles and that another of its financers was British Ambassador to Russia Sir George Buchanan.
At the same time that Morgan was funding pro-Bolshevik groups, he also founded the extreme anti-Bolshevik “United Americans” that was trying to frighten Americans into believing that a Red mob was ready to take New York. In a strange twist the officers of “United Americans” were Allen Walker of the Guarantee Trust Company (the Soviet's fiscal agent in the U.S. at the time); Daniel Willard president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railway (that was developing Soviet railways); H.H. Westinghouse of Westinghouse Air Brake Company (which operated a major plant in Russia); and Otto H. Kahn of Kuhn, Loeb & Company (arguable THE principal financial backer of the Soviet regime).
Morgan and a consortium of British financiers, including Alfred Milner, also financed the army of Admiral Kolchak, who was fighting against the Bolsheviks in Siberia.

In the years after the Bolsheviks took dictatorial control of the Soviet Union, lucrative contracts were issued to British and American businesses affiliated with the Round Table network.
Chicago meat packers Morris & Company, for example, got a 50 million pounds contract. Edward Morris was married to Helen Swift, sister of Harold Swift who had been a "Major" at the Red Cross Mission in Russia.
From 1921 to 1925, Standard Oil and General Electric supplied $37 million worth of machinery.
Junkers Aircraft in Germany literally created Soviet air power.
At least 3 million slave labourers perished in Siberia digging ore for Britain's Lena Goldfields, Ltd.
W. Averell Harriman — who later became US Ambassador to Russia — acquired a twenty-year monopoly over Soviet manganese production.

The sinking of the Lusitania
It’s no secret that the bombing of the British passenger liner Lusitania by those horrible Germans was the reason that the US joined WW I.
Calling the Lusitania a “passenger liner” is certainly misleading. In May 1913, the Lusitania was outfitted with extra armour, revolving gun rings on her decks, and shell racks in the hold for ammunition. In Jane's Fighting Ships the Lusitania was now listed as an auxiliary cruiser and in the British “The Naval Annual” an armed merchant man.
In October 1914, Winston Churchill issued orders that British merchant ships must no longer obey a U-boat order to halt and be searched but instead shoot at the enemy or ram the submarine. The result was that German U-boats were forced to sink ships without warning.

The cargo that was loaded on the Lusitania on her last voyage included 600 tons of pyroxyline (gun cotton), 6 million rounds of ammunition, 1,248 cases of shrapnel shells, plus an unknown quantity of munitions that filled the holds on the lowest deck and trunkways and passageways of F deck.
As the Lusitania moved into hostile waters, First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, ordered her destroyer protection to leave. This made her an easy target. After the impact of one torpedo, a mighty second explosion from within ripped her apart, and it quickly gurgled to the bottom.

Colonel Edward Mandell House was highly influential at that time, a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation and very close to Andrew Carnegie himself. House was in England at that very day to meet King George V. He was accompanied by Sir Edward Grey (Knight of the Garter, KG, 1912), who asked him: "What will America do if the Germans sink an ocean liner with American passengers on board?". According to House, "I told him if this were done, a flame of indignation would sweep America, which would in itself probably carry us into the war".
After arriving at Buckingham Palace, King George (another KG) asked House, "Suppose they should sink the Lusitania with American passengers on board...".

William Jenning Bryan became so disillusioned by the duplicity of his own government that on 9 May, he sent a note to Wilson:
Quote:Germany has a right to prevent contraband going to the Allies and a ship carrying contraband should not rely upon passengers to protect her from attack-it would be like putting women and children in front of an army.

On 16 April 1917, the US officially declared war on the Axis powers. Eight days later, Congress passed the War Loan Act which extended $1 billion in credit to the Allies. The first advance of $200 million went to the British to repay the debt to Morgan. A few days later, $100 million went to France for the same purpose.
Within 3 months Britain had run up their overdraft with Morgan to $400 million dollars, and the firm presented it to the government for payment. The Federal Reserve System created the money to give to England and France so they could pay back the American banks. The same process was done again in World War II and the “bailout” of the 1980s and '90s.

International loans, World Bank, IMF
American banks had always been willing to make loans to the Soviet Union, except for short periods of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and other minor “business interruptions”.
The Soviets bought American goods with “loans” from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Almost all of these loans were guaranteed by the US government, which means that if these countries default, the gullible American taxpayer will once again have to pay.
America gives billions to Russia, which uses it to build and sell missiles to China. China then sells those Russian-made missiles to the oil-rich Iran.

American banks and businessmen — with taxpayers’ guarantees — have provided power-generating equipment, modern steel mills and military hardware to China.
Within a few weeks of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre in Beijing, at the very time that student leaders were executed, the Bush Administration approved a $200 million, low-interest loan for delivery of 4 brand new Boeings. In 1993, 47 more Boeing jetliners were sold with another 800 Boeings over the next 15 years projected. China paid for all this through guaranteed loans and subsidies from the World Bank.

The US also provided aid to Eastern Europe, under control of the Soviet Union, which strengthened the Communist regimes.
In November 1988, the World Bank made its first loan to Poland for $17.9 million. In 1991, the Bush Administration cancelled 70% of the $3.8 billion owed to the United States, which had to be paid by American taxpayers instead.
During 1992, Yeltsin wheeled and dealed with Royal Dutch Shell, British Petroleum, Amoco, Texaco, and Exxon.

Shortly after the Mexican government loaned $55 million to Fidel Castro’s Cuba, head of the Federal Reserve Paul Volcker offered Mexico's finance minister, Jesus Silva Herzog, a $600 million short-term loan to get Mexico past its election date of 4 July.

After Brazil in 1982 announced it couldn’t make payments on its debt, the U.S. Treasury loaned $1.23 billion to keep those checks going to the banks. Twenty days later, it gave another $1.5 billion; the Bank of International Settlements advanced $1.2 billion. The following month, the IMF provided $5.5 billion; Western banks extended $10 billion in trade credits; and $4.4 billion in new loans were made by a Morgan Bank syndication.
This plan set the precedent of "curing" the debt crisis by creating more debt.

The global environmental threat - depopulation
The pollution of the environment global threat has been carefully planned since at least the 1960s. This was viewed as likely to succeed because it could be related to observable conditions like smog and water pollution and would therefore look “credible”.
In 1989, an article by CFR member George Kennan was published:
Quote:We must prepare instead for ... an age where the great enemy is not the Soviet Union, but the rapid deterioration of our planet as a supporting structure for civilized life.

Fabian Bertrand Russell (of the Noble English Russell family, the handler of H.G. Wells) explained:
Quote:I do not pretend that birth control is the only way in which population can be kept from increasing... War, as I remarked a moment ago, has hitherto been disappointing in this respect, but perhaps bacteriological war may prove more effective. If a Black Death could be spread throughout the world once in every generation, survivors could procreate freely without making the world too full....
A scientific world society cannot be stable unless there is world government... It will be necessary to find ways of preventing an increase in world population. If this is to be done otherwise than by wars, pestilences and famines, it will demand a powerful international authority. This authority should deal out the world's food to the various nations in proportion to their population at the time of the establishments of the authority. If any nation subsequently increased its population, it should not on that account receive any more food. The motive for not increasing population would therefore be very compelling.

G. Edward Griffin – The creature from Jekyll Island: A second look at the federal reserve (1994) – 6.9 MB:
Donald Trump is very cozy with the Rothschild crime syndicate:

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RE: A history of banking – Slavery by debt, laws and treaties - by Firestarter - 11-02-2019, 06:05 PM

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